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¡Por fin! El verano ya está con nosotros y nos va a acompañar en los próximos meses. A partir de ahora, empiezan a acelerarse los planes, las escapadas de fin de semana, las visitas a familiares y amigos, las vacaciones… ¿Tienes ya tus plantes cerrados? Continue reading “Principales destinos de playa en España para el verano”

En el transcurso de la catalogación de fondos bibliográficos patrimoniales suelen producirse sorpresas de todo tipo. La mayoría, se resuelven con una comprobación rutinaria; otros, requieren la consulta de ejemplares similares; y luego, hay casos misteriosos que se convierten en todo un reto. Esta es la historia de uno de estos misterios. En invierno de 2015 se detectó un registro bibliográfico con informaciones contradictorias y posibles errores. Bajo la apariencia de un libro religioso del siglo XX, se descubrió un tesoro que podía ser un incunable. El documento, de gran belleza pero muy incompleto, parecía ser un libro de horas. La inexactitud en el registro bibliográfico de los datos más elementales (título, autoría o pie de imprenta) se debía a la ausencia de portada y colofón, así como la falta de numerosos cuadernos del corpus documental. La revisión catalográfica, y sobre todo la identificación del documento, anticipaban una investigación muy complicada dado su estado y la falta de información bibliográfica.

La fase previa a la identificación pasaba por definir exactamente cuál era el estado ideal de la obra. Había que averiguar el número total de cuadernos para poder compararlo con ediciones similares. No fue una tarea fácil. El ejemplar de la Biblioteca sólo cuenta con dos cuadernos cuantificables y enteros, con el añadido de que en este tipo de obras sólo se identificaba el 1º hoja de los cuadernos. Por foliar con conocimiento, se analizaron las secuencias litúrgicas de las horas mayores (maitines, laudes, vísperas, completas) y menores (tercera, sexta y nona) con el objetivo de analizar los vacíos existentes. Aun así, no fue posible establecer una seriación lógica de las firmas ni de la foliación. A pesar de las dificultades y de las dudas, existían algunos datos seguras y objetivables (como la de las líneas por cuadro de texto) que ayudaron a acotar el año de edición. La fortuna hizo que no existieran muchas ediciones de 27 líneas, así que la horquilla se redujo el periodo comprendido entre 1498 y 1502.

El círculo se fue estrechando, pero aún había que afinar el año de edición y esclarecer el impresor y el artista colaborador. Se consultaron ediciones digitalizadas de todo el mundo para identificar el artista o grabador y, incluso, se buscó en el texto alguna invocación a algún santo, que permitiera identificar a quien estaba dedicado el libro de horas oa qué liturgia pertenecía ( Roma, París, etc.). Esta no era una búsqueda menor, ya que, por ejemplo, la mayoría de libros de horas de uso parisino de aquella época se dedicaban a santa Genoveva (sainte Geneviève).

A pesar de todas las investigaciones, la obra no ha sido identificada al 100%. La consulta de ediciones muy similares [1], como las referenciadas a Lacombe [2] con los números 109 y 113, o la búsqueda al Gesamtkatalog [3], que indica detalles tan importantes como los reclamos a finales de los cuadernos o las primeras frases de algunas oraciones, ha permitido afinar el año de edición entre 1501 y 1502. la identificación, sin embargo, se alargó algunas semanas hasta que se consideró que el documento -con toda probabilidad- es un libro de horas según el rito romano, impreso en los alrededores de 1501 y que el autor de los grabados era el famoso artista Philippe Pigouchet.

la obra

La obra

El libro de horas Nada 358-12º es una joya bibliográfica y artística. Las Ces Presentas hiedras a lusaige de Romme fueron impresas sobre vitela los talleres parisinos de Simon Vuestro hacia 1.501 con la extraordinaria colaboración del artista Philippe Pigouchet, según Renouvier [4]. Pigouchet destacó en su tiempo por la extraordinaria belleza y ejecución de sus grabados sobre plancha metálica mediante la técnica criblé, que él mismo introdujo.

El uso de la criblé consistía en efectuar una serie de pequeños puntos sobre planchas de metal blando (una amalgama de cobre y estaño) con el objetivo de que las figuras o los paisajes insertados alcanzaran un mayor relieve y vivacidad. El conjunto gráfico del libro se organiza en dos partes. Una de mayor relevancia, ya lámina entera, contiene las representaciones del hombre anatómico, el martirio de san Juan evangelista, el beso de Judas, la Anunciación, la Visitación, Pentecostés, el calvario de Jesucristo, la Natividad o la adoración los Magos de Oriente, entre otros episodios de la vida y pasión de Jesucristo. La serie gráfica menor está formada por orlas de una finura y belleza exquisitas con escenas de las sibilas, las virtudes, la danza de la muerte, personajes grotescos y otras representaciones de la vida cotidiana como la caza o la música.

En el caso de este ejemplar, un gran número de orlas fueron coloreadas a posteriori. Algunas presentan una coloración monocroma en rojo, verde o tonos liliáceas provocando que los detalles de los grabados se desdibujen. La mayoría, sin embargo, presentan una policromía perfectamente trabajada, donde se detectan trazos perfilados en dorado que subliman la belleza de la escena, como es el caso del recto del 1º hoja del cuaderno d, foliado en lápiz con el número 5.

El libro de horas está impreso en letra gótica, a 27 líneas, y con las iniciales miniadas en azul, rojo y dorado. Es curioso destacar que en algunas páginas se pueden observar las líneas o pautas de escritura à la manière ancienne propias del libro manuscrito, así como el uso de abreviaturas.

 

Philippe Pigouchet ha generado siempre admiración entre bibliófilos, libreros e historiadores del arte. Gran parte del interés responde, evidentemente, a factores crematísticos. Pero uno de los valores más trascendentes de su trabajo es la capacidad que tiene para transportar al lector hacia un mundo pretérito a través de sus grabados. Pigouchet aleja, algunos momentos, del mundo palaciego para abocarnos (literalmente) en la ventana de la vida cotidiana donde la música, el pastoreo o la caza toman una dimensión nueva y, seguramente, desconocida para nosotros.

La encuadernación, firmada “Alf. Ballmüller “en la parte inferior del contraplano posterior, está realizada en pergamino a la romana con cierres de pergamino. El ejemplar fue adquirido al Sr. Alexandre de Riquer el 14 de abril de 1924.

[1] La sociedad Vuestro & Pigouchet hizo en 18 años más de 180 ediciones de libros de horas.
[2] Lacombe, Paul (1907). Livres de hiedras imprimir ave XV te ave XVI siècle conservara dans les Bibliothèques publicas de Paris. Paris: Imp. Nationale.
[3] Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke. Consulta digital. http://www.gesamtkatalogderwiegendrucke.de/
[4] Renouvier, Julio (1862). Desde gravures sur bois dans les livres de Simon Vuestro, librero de Heures. Paris: Aubry.

Latest Release IIA-CIA-PART3 Exam Materials For Certified Internal

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Barcelona, the second largest city in Spain, is ideally located on the Mediterranean coast with its approximately 1.6 million inhabitants. The city is bordered to the sea side of the beautiful coastline. The mountain chain Collserola, adjacent to the north of Barcelona, making a fantastic rounded background. This particular location says about you? Then book with fluege.de cheap flights to Barcelona.

The small hills laced city Barcelona offers a lot of interesting and impressive sights. Already on the flight to Barcelona, you can admire the famous checkerboard layout of the city. The most famous sight in Barcelona is the Sagrada Família in the city center. One designed by Antoni Gaudí, unique and stunning church in neukatalanischen style. The construction of the Roman Catholic Church began in 1882 and is still underway. In Barcelona you will also one of the most beautiful parks in the world. The Garden City Park Guell is just like the Sagrada Família built a work by the artist Antoni Gaudí and was built between 1900 and 1914th He is almost 15 hectares and mainly among artists and art lovers known and popular. The park was created both cost-saving and environmentally friendly, and is decorated with numerous terraces, turrets, mosaics and other stone constructions.

Barcelona is a city of artists, so also recommends a visit to the Picasso Museum. Or visit the famous avenue of Spain. La Rambla is a wide avenue with numerous stalls, artists, painters, cafes and other attractions where you experience so typical of Spain life up close: people who come for a cozy chat in the midday sun together or zealous in one of Spain’s best fruit and vegetable markets on which one obtains all manner of goods act. Experience one of the most beautiful cities in Spain and book with fluege.de free and comfortable your flight to Barcelona, which allows you to fly cheap and can enjoy your dream vacation.

Cheap flights to Barcelona are already available today from all major airports in the world – so of course from Germany. Fly, for example, from Berlin, from Frankfurt or from Munich. A flight to Barcelona usually takes no longer than 2.5 hours, and ends at the Barcelona-El Prat airport. It is located just 15 kilometers from the city. By bus, by taxi or by rental car it is just a few minutes directly in the busy city.

barcelona view

Flights to Barcelona

Barcelona, Catalonia’s capital, is known as a center of business and tourism. With its interesting sights, cultural diversity, the location on the Mediterranean, the stunning natural surroundings and the many parks in the city of Barcelona is one of the most desirable destinations for young and old.

The best sites in Barcelona

The Sagrada Familia is undoubtedly one of the most famous buildings of Barcelona. The Roman Catholic church was designed by Antoni Gaudí and started in the year 1882nd A completion of the construction is still not in sight, but planned by the year 2026th But not only the Sagrada Familia is reminiscent of the famous architect. Throughout the city, its unique architecture is represented. The visitor magnets include, for example, known under the name “La Pedrera” House Milá, the Palau Güell or Casa Batlló. The Parc Güell, created 1900-1914, today forms part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.

No Barcelona visitor passes by the Ramblas, the most famous streets of the city. It connects the port of the city with the central Plaça Catalunya. Street performers, musicians, flower stalls, pet seller and charming architecture that surrounds lined with plane trees promenade, provide one of the many cafes and restaurants of always something to marvel.

Barcelona – always worth a trip

Due to the Mediterranean climate and relatively mild temperatures, a trip worth to Barcelona throughout the year. In winter, temperatures fall only very rarely below 0 degrees Celsius. For culture lovers who explore the many museums of the city or want to admire the Gaudí’s buildings from the inside, the perfect travel time. The advantage of the cooler winter temperatures, the clear air, offers the Tibidabo uninterrupted view to the Pyrenees.

Already in April the weather is spring-like warm and the tables of the many cafes move out. Temperatures occasionally up to 20 degrees Celsius making air on walks and shopping stroll in the fresh air. the temperatures rise noticeably from May and the stands start to fill up. Since it was not too hot in May and June and summer, these two months are especially popular. If you are looking for short breaks in Barcelona you must see this. In July and August the temperatures to over 30 degrees Celsius can rise and it is very humid in part. For lunchtime therefore offer visits to indoors. Of particular interest this time for night owls, as many open-air events take place. However, August is the holiday period of the locals and many shops are closed or open only a few hours a day.

sagrada familia

Flights to Barcelona – El Prat

Flights to Barcelona land at El Prat Aeroport airport 14 kilometers from downtown away. In fact, the airport belongs to the town of El Prat del Llobregat, which has given it its name. Barcelona is served by all major airports in Germany from every season. Thanks to the good infrastructure of the major tourist and business center, the city center from the airport is easy to reach. The Aerobus leaves from Terminal 1 at peak times every five minutes from Terminal 2 from every 10 minutes.

The ride into town takes just over half an hour. An easy drive to the Aerobus cost around 5 euros. In addition to the Aerobus, which has its final stop at Plaça Catalunya, take several public buses to the center or in popular destinations near. On the way back to the airport with the Aerobus, it is important to pay attention to the terminal of departure. One of the buses traveling to Terminal 1, the other for Terminal 2. Who ends up in the wrong terminal, can access the other terminal by bus.

This takes between 10 and 15 minutes. Directly in front of the terminal system anytime Taxis are available. The price for a ride to the city center of Barcelona is about 30 euros. Especially, who has his hotel near the airport, these costs but can save, because many of the surrounding hotels offer their passengers a free shuttle service. Surely you go to when you inquires at hotel before you book a flight to Barcelona.


Money and pay in Barcelona

The valid in Barcelona currency is the euro. Banks with freely accessible ATMs are widespread. Accept the machines both EC and credit cards. How much does it charges for lifting, is different. The rules for this are to be found in the Terms and Conditions of your bank. Most ATMs complete the process in the German language. Communication problems do not exist, therefore, and the withdrawal of money is simple. Be careful of scams. Thus, several methods have been developed in the past to steal money from ATMs.

If the machine does not spend the money or you will be prompted repeatedly to enter the secret code, caution should be exercised. During the opening times of the bank can apply directly to the local branch, provided that the ATM is located at the bank. Otherwise it is advisable to refer directly to the police. In most restaurants and shops debit or credit cards are accepted as payment. Unlike the cashback will not be charged when paying with the card in the business.

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